MINIBIAN

The standard OS for the Raspberry Pi certainly is Raspbian, since it is the Foundation’s official supported operating system.

Although it allows anyone to get their RasPi up and running in no time and without a hassle, one must not forget that it's also a tool that was developed in a defined philosophy. As stated by MINIBIAN's creator Luca Soltoggio:

the [Raspberry Pi] project was born primarily to provide a low cost computer in education and in the countries in the developing world.

This is perfectly fine, and following this logic it's perfectly understandable that since the Jessie version of Raspbian, it boots straight into the desktop GUI (version 3 of GTK+ / LXDE), see this raspberry.org article which clearly states the philosophy that lies behind the Raspbian releases.

What the Pi's project founders probably didn't imagine is the fact that their creation would also become

a perfect tool for many makers across the world, who would be able to use it as a powerful, flexible and low cost embedded system.

And there lies an enormous difference in expectations!

An educational system environment requirements have little to do with an embedded system requirements.

As this is an entirely different philosophy, one could of course start from scratch and install, let's say an ArchLinux system on their RasPi.
But bear in mind that the ARM architecture isn't as standard (yet) as the Intel x86 (for example). Thus you might find yourself loosing some (much) time getting the right library/package to do the job. And the Raspberry foundation has made a tremendous job at bringing a viable environment for their platform. As many others now exist but don't come close to the level of usability the RasPi is offering nowadays.

This is why the philosophy lying behind MINIBIAN is attractive. The point being to keep the basics from the official Raspbian releases, using a customized Raspbian installation, minimizing it's footprint, booting in some seconds and using as little precious RAM as possible. Thus guarantying a smooth experience, compatible with most of the existing software and references available for Raspbian.

Installation

First we'll need to download the MINIBIAN image, which is available from sourceforge.net or using this torrent file.

Checksum

I won't start a discussion about the need of being careful about security, all I will say is that it is highly recommended to verify the authenticity of your downloaded file. This can easily be done by verifying it's checksum available on the official MINIBIAN download page

Verify the sha1 checksum of your download:

> sha1sum /path/to/your/minibian/yyyy-mm-dd-jessie-minibian.tar.gz

Compare this with the value given on the Minibian download page

Setup

We'll now follow the setup procedure that's recommended on elinux.org:

> cd /path/to/your/minibian/
> tar xvf yyyy-mm-dd-jessie-minibian.tar.gz

Now identify the SD Card you want to use. Run the lsblk command once before you insert your SD Card into a card reader port, on once after, the difference in output should clearly show you the identification of the SD Card:

Before the SD Card is inserted:

> lsblk
NAME          MAJ:MIN RM   SIZE RO TYPE MOUNTPOINT
sda             8:0    0 931.5G  0 disk 
├─sda1          8:1    0     2G  0 part [SWAP]
├─sda2          8:2    0    20G  0 part /
└─sda3          8:3    0 909.5G  0 part 
  ├─vg01-opt  254:0    0    20G  0 lvm  /opt
  └─vg01-home 254:1    0 889.5G  0 lvm  /home
sr0            11:0    1  1024M  0 rom  

After the SD Card is inserted:

> lsblk
NAME          MAJ:MIN RM   SIZE RO TYPE MOUNTPOINT
sda             8:0    0 931.5G  0 disk 
├─sda1          8:1    0     2G  0 part [SWAP]
├─sda2          8:2    0    20G  0 part /
└─sda3          8:3    0 909.5G  0 part 
  ├─vg01-opt  254:0    0    20G  0 lvm  /opt
  └─vg01-home 254:1    0 889.5G  0 lvm  /home
sr0            11:0    1  1024M  0 rom  
mmcblk0       179:0    0  14.7G  0 disk 
├─mmcblk0p1   179:1    0   1.1G  0 part 
├─mmcblk0p2   179:2    0     1K  0 part 
├─mmcblk0p5   179:5    0    32M  0 part 
├─mmcblk0p6   179:6    0    63M  0 part 
└─mmcblk0p7   179:7    0  13.4G  0 part

In this case our target will be /dev/mmcblk0. Now we make sure all its partitions are unmounted and copy our image file to the SD Card (in this case, monitoring the dd progress through pv):

Copy the img file to the SD Card

> sudo umount /dev/mmcblk0p1 /dev/mmcblk0p2 /dev/mmcblk0p5 /dev/mmcblk0p6 /dev/mmcblk0p7
> sudo dd bs=4M if=yyyy-mm-dd-jessie-minibian.img | pv | dd of=/dev/mmcblk0
198+1 records in[3.95MiB/s] [                                                                                            <=>           ]
198+1 records out
832569344 bytes (833 MB) copied, 356.034 s, 2.3 MB/s
 794MiB 0:05:56 [2.23MiB/s] [                                                                                          <=>             ]
1626112+0 records in
1626112+0 records out
832569344 bytes (833 MB) copied, 359.634 s, 2.3 MB/s

Note: remove the | pv | pipe part of the code if you don't wish to monitor the dd progress.

Finally, let's safely eject the card using sync to ensure the write cache is flushed and that it is safe to unmount the SD card:

Safely eject the SD Card

> sudo sync

Resize the SD Partition

To use the full space available on the SD card, we'll need to extend the initial Minibian partition size, this operation is detailed on the following page of the Minibian website

Using fdisk to resize the SD partition size:

> sudo fdisk /dev/mmcblk0
Welcome to fdisk (util-linux 2.25.2).
Changes will remain in memory only, until you decide to write them.
Be careful before using the write command.


Command (m for help): p
Disk /dev/mmcblk0: 14.7 GiB, 15716057088 bytes, 30695424 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disklabel type: dos
Disk identifier: 0x00000000

Device         Boot  Start     End Sectors  Size Id Type
/dev/mmcblk0p1          16  125055  125040 61.1M  b W95 FAT32
/dev/mmcblk0p2      125056 1626111 1501056  733M 83 Linux


Command (m for help): d
Partition number (1,2, default 2): 2

Partition 2 has been deleted.

Command (m for help): n
Partition type
   p   primary (1 primary, 0 extended, 3 free)
   e   extended (container for logical partitions)
Select (default p): p
Partition number (2-4, default 2): 2
First sector (125056-30695423, default 126976): 125056
Last sector, +sectors or +size{K,M,G,T,P} (125056-30695423, default 30695423): 30695423

Created a new partition 2 of type 'Linux' and of size 14.6 GiB.

Command (m for help): w
The partition table has been altered.
Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table.
Syncing disks.

To complete the operation, we still have to effectively enlarge the file system for it to take up he available complementary partition space:

Enlarge the File System to the full partition size:

> sudo e2fsck -f /dev/mmcblk0p2
e2fsck 1.42.12 (29-Aug-2014)
Pass 1: Checking inodes, blocks, and sizes
Pass 2: Checking directory structure
Pass 3: Checking directory connectivity
Pass 4: Checking reference counts
Pass 5: Checking group summary information
/dev/mmcblk0p2: 15631/46944 files (0.2% non-contiguous), 120088/187512 blocks

> sudo resize2fs /dev/mmcblk0p2
resize2fs 1.42.12 (29-Aug-2014)
Resizing the filesystem on /dev/mmcblk0p2 to 3821296 (4k) blocks.
The filesystem on /dev/mmcblk0p2 is now 3821296 (4k) blocks long.

Startup Your RasPi

Insert the SD Card in the RasPi and power it…

If you're using a model 3 Pi, you might experience an error reported at startup looking like:

Startup log error:

cfg80211: Calling CRDA to update world regulatory domain
...
cfg80211: Exceeded CRDA call max attempts. Not calling CRDA.

This seems to be because the CRDA package is not installed by default, installing the following seems to fix this:

Install crda & wireless packages

> apt-get install crda iw wireless-regdb
> reboot

Transfer your SSH public key

Now is a good time to transfer your ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub key to the RasPi so you'll be able to SSH in without having to enter a password every time, from your workstation type:

Transfer your SSH public key:

> ssh-copy-id root@you.mini.bian.ip

The IP of your installation is displayed in red during the boot sequence.

WiFi

NOTE: the following is based on RasPi 3 model experimentation, you might need to install some specific packages for your hardware. In order to enable Wifi and Bluetooth on the new Raspberry Pi 3, one need to install some complementary packages as follow:

Install WiFi & Bluetooth packages:

> apt-get update
> apt-get install firmware-brcm80211 pi-bluetooth wpasupplicant wireless-tools

To configure and use the WiFi network, you can scan for available SSIDs using:

Scan available WiFi networks

> iwlist scan
Cell 02 - Address: 30:91:8F:15:C7:F7
  Channel:8
  Frequency:2.447 GHz (Channel 8)
  Quality=36/70  Signal level=-74 dBm  
  Encryption key:on
  ESSID:"My-WiFi-SSID"
  Bit Rates:1 Mb/s; 2 Mb/s; 5.5 Mb/s; 11 Mb/s; 18 Mb/s
            24 Mb/s; 36 Mb/s; 54 Mb/s
  Bit Rates:6 Mb/s; 9 Mb/s; 12 Mb/s; 48 Mb/s
  Mode:Master
  Extra:tsf=0000000000000000
  Extra: Last beacon: 70ms ago
  IE: Unknown: 0007444D5F62626F78
  IE: Unknown: 010882848B962430486C
  IE: Unknown: 030108
  IE: Unknown: 2A0100
  IE: Unknown: 2F0100
  IE: IEEE 802.11i/WPA2 Version 1
      Group Cipher : CCMP
      Pairwise Ciphers (1) : CCMP
      Authentication Suites (1) : PSK
  IE: Unknown: 32040C121860
  IE: Unknown: 2D1A1C1......000000
  IE: Unknown: 3D16080......000000
  IE: Unknown: 7F08040......0000040
  IE: Unknown: DDAB005......000120
  IE: Unknown: DD09001......0C0000
  IE: Unknown: DD18005......322F00

You still need to modify 2 files:

/etc/network/interfaces

> nano /etc/network/interfaces

/etc/network/interfaces

...

allow-hotplug wlan0
iface wlan0 inet manual
  wpa-roam /etc/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant.conf

/etc/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant.conf

> nano /etc/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant.conf

/etc/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant.conf

network={
  ssid="YourSSID"
  psk="YourPassword"
}

Here, we use the manual setting with wpa-roam, this stackexchange thread seems to imply that this configuration should suspend the WiFi when the Ethernet cable is plugged and vice-versa. On the contrary, using manual with wpa-roam, (this hasn't been tested by myself).

Nevertheless, using the above settings had both WiFi and Ethernet activated at the same time. There is more to learn in this article about Setting up for WiFi Roaming with wpa.

Bluetooth